Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

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Means of Disease Transmission
- It is hard to tell that someone has CKD until it is far along. In order to know for sure that your kidneys are working is to get tested. You can get an eGFR (estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate), )urine test, and a blood pressure test.
- The two main causes of CKD is high blood pressure, and diabetes. Other conditions that affect the kidneys are glomerulonephritis (a group of diseases that cause damamge to the kidney's filtering units, and causes them to swell), inherited diseases, malformations that can occur before birth, Lupus, diseases that affect the immune system, problems caused by kidney stones, problems caused by, tumors, an enlarged prostate gland in men, and repeated urinary infections.

Symptoms
- At first, CKD usually does not have any symptoms. Early detection and treatment can prevent it from getting worse, but if it does get worse, it can eventually lead to kidney failure.
- Symptoms of CKD are feeling more tired with less energy, trouble concentrating, loss of appetite, trouble sleeping, muscle cramping at night, swollen feet and ankles, puffiness around your eyes, dry skin, itchy skin, and the need to urinate more often.

Health Implications
- CKD is the loss of kidney function. If the disease progresses, waste can build to high levels in the blood stream, and make a person feel sick. It can lead to high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health, and nerve damage. It can also increase your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. If CKD continues to get worse, it can eventually lead to kidney failure. Kidney failure requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.

Prevalence
An Estimated 26 Million Adults in the United States have CKD.
Most people with CKD don't know they have it.
Chart: People who reported having Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) by Stage
Chart: People who reported having Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) by Stage

Among the key findings in the CDC Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance Report:
-In 1999–2006, among (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) NHANES survey participants, <5% of those with kidney disease stages 1 or 2 (mild disease) reported being aware of having CKD; of those with CKD stage 3 (moderate disease), awareness was only about 7.5%; for stage 4 (severe disease), awareness was still only less than half (about 40%).
-Among those with CKD stage 3 or 4, younger (15%) and male (13%) participants and those who were non-Hispanic black (21%) had the greatest levels of awareness relative to their counterparts.
-Awareness rates for CKD stage 3 or 4 were higher in those with comorbid diagnoses of diabetes and hypertension, but still quite low (20% and 12%, respectively).
(http://www.cdc.gov/Features/dsChronicKidneyDisease/)

Treatment
- Since CKD damage is usually permanent, there is no cure that can thoroughly fix it, but you can take steps to help slow it down, and keep it from getting worse.
You can control your blood sugar if you have diabetes, keep a healthy blood pressure, eat a heart healthy diet, exercise most days of the week, keep a healthy weight, do not smoke or use tobacco, limit alcohol consumption, and talk to your doctor about medicine that can help you.

What can we do?
- The best thing you can do to help prevent CKD and kidney disease is to live a healthy lifestyle, eat a diet that is low in fat and salt, exercise regularly, have regular check-ups with your doctor, avoid tobacco, and limit your alcohol consumptions.


http://www.cdc.gov/Features/dsChronicKidneyDisease/
http://www.kidneyfund.org/kidney-health/kidney-problems/chronic-kidney-disease.html
http://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease/ckd/index.cfm